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Mitochondrial disorders consist of a heterogeneous group of conditions arising from inherited mutations to mitochondrial DNA.  These disorders are now known as some of the most common genetic diseases, with a prevalence rate conservatively estimated at 1 in 5,000 (1). Both physical and cognitive symptoms are common, with clinical presentations differing significantly by subtype. These […]

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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI), which are commonly a result of sports injuries.  Given the popularity of contact sports, research on the prevalence and development of CTE has grown in recent years. One study examining the brains of professional football players post-mortem has confirmed […]

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Rheumatologic conditions are diseases that affect the joints and connective tissues. Individuals with these conditions may experience cognitive symptoms. This article will discuss the cognitive and neural consequences of some common types of rheumatologic illnesses, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous, and Sjögren’s syndrome.   Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is defined as widespread joint pain and […]

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Overview Postoperative cognitive dysfunction refers to a persistent cognitive dysfunction that occurs subsequent to surgery and anesthesia that is beyond postoperative delirium, a transient state of cognitive change. Until recently, the majority of research on postoperative cognitive dysfunction has focused on cardiac surgery. However, emerging evidence has found the presence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction after major […]

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Overview Lyme disease is a tick-born illness caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Symptoms include skin lesions, neurological signs, cardiac symptoms, and arthritis. This article will focus on the neurological aspects of Lyme disease. Lyme disease is typically successfully treated with antibiotics; however, a minority of individuals develop chronic Lyme disease. The efficacy of prolonged […]

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Wilson’s Disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an inherited metabolic disease that impacts the liver’s ability to excrete copper (1).  More specifically, it is a mutation of gene ATP7B, found on chromosome 13, that results in a progressive accumulation of copper in the liver, central nervous system (often the basal ganglia), kidneys and eyes, […]

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Many breast cancer patients often complain of brain fog, confusion and decreased attention after receiving chemotherapy; this phenomenon is often referred to as “chemobrain”. For some individuals, these effects persist even after chemotherapy has ultimately stopped. The numbers vary greatly and studies suggest that anywhere from 15 to 50% of breast cancer patients experience the […]